Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery
Plastic surgery is considered to be a broad field comprising cosmetic and aesthetic surgery, surgical repair of congenital deformities like cleft lip and palate, post-surgical reconstruction, correction of post-traumatic defects, craniofacial surgery, reconstructive microsurgery, facial reconstructive surgery, pediatric plastic surgery, hand surgery, laser surgery.
Which Conditions are Treated Under Plastic Surgery?
Cosmetic or aesthetic plastic surgery is usually done to enhance the appearance of the body part/s. the treatment is dependent on the choice of the ‘correction’ required by the patient/s.
Under medical conditions, following are the most common one that can be treated with plastic surgery:
Ameloblastoma, breast cancer, Buerger’s disease, cancer, carpal tunnel syndrome, cleft lip and cleft palate, craniosynostosis, eyelid ptosis, facial deformities, floor of the mouth cancer, ganglion cyst, hand injuries, head and neck cancers, hemangioma, lip cancer, lymphedema, melanoma, mouth cancer, nonmelanoma skin cancer, orbital fracture, sarcoma, skin blemishes, soft palate cancer, spider veins, suspicious breast lumps, telangiectasia, throat cancer, tongue cancer, tonsil cancer, varicose veins, vascular malformations, wrinkles.
What Kind of Procedures are Done Under Plastic Surgery?
The procedures depend on the condition and the requirement of the patient. The doctor is the best person to guide you on this. Usual procedures include:
This form of reconstruction involves placing an implant under the chest wall muscle and skin. In many cases, is usually done as a two-stage operation. Firstly, an inflatable balloon (tissue expander) is placed under the muscle. This is inflated with a series of injections of saline water to stretch the skin. A permanent implant is then inserted 3-6 months later.
With an appropriate selection of patients, implant reconstruction can be offered also as a single-stage operation. This has the advantage of maintaining the breast skin and allowing more natural appearance of the breast. It requires the use of special materials to be used in addition to the implant to help support the implant internally. This is either a synthetic-made material or a specially prepared animal-derived biological meshes. If one-stage implant reconstruction is an option, this will be discussed with you.
Breast Cosmetic Surgery
There are many different types of breast reshaping (Mastopexy) operation. During the consultation, the most suitable type of procedure for the patient, based upon breast size, amount of loose skin, and whether an implant is also used will all be discussed. The scars and final type of shape will vary according to the style of procedure used. However, in simple terms, the nipple is kept attached to the breast, but lifted to a new higher and position. Excess skin is removed from the breast and the remaining breast tissue is reshaped. This is all repaired, giving an uplifted and firmer breast.
Male Cosmetic Procedures
Male cosmetic procedures for the body are performed to improve shape and confidence. An increasing number of men are now enjoying the benefits of cosmetic surgery to help them look and feel good. It is possible to obtain exceptional results whilst maintaining masculinity. The main procedures under this include liposuction, tummy tuck (abdominoplasty), and male breast reduction (gynecomastia).
Liposuction is a form of treatment to firm and refines the skin, improving its contour and shape. We can use liposuction to treat any areas of the body that carry unwanted excess fat including the hips, abdomen, buttocks, upper arms, breasts, and neck. Using liposuction is usually recommended to remove localized areas of fat. It is not the right course of treatment for losing large amounts of weight or cellulite
Tummy Tuck (Abdominoplasty)
Tummy tucks are a form of treatment to re-shape the abdomen. This procedure is for patients who have excessive skin, fat, and stretch marks on the abdomen, commonly as the result of having children. Patients that opt for this procedure may have also lost their waistline and have divarication (separation) of the midline muscles giving further bulge to the tummy. This procedure does result in some weight removal, but it is primarily for re-shaping the abdomen and not a means of treating obesity
Face and Neck Lift
Face and neck lifts can dramatically improve neck and jowl shape. As the face ages, the skin and underlying muscles become lax with loss of skin tone and elasticity. This combined with the effects of the sun, results in drooping of the facial tissues. There is also a loss of fat volume and descent of fat in the face. A facelift can partly reverse these changes, particularly the neck and jawline. This procedure can sometimes be done with the removal of neck fat, a blepharoplasty (eye-lid procedure), fat injections to help fill out the middle of the face, and a forehead lift
Eyelid Surgery (Blepharoplasty)
Eyelid surgery (blepharoplasty) is a form of treatment for upper and lower eyelid bags. Eyelid bags are a combination of excess skin on the lid, with or without bulging fat from under the eyelid. This can make the eye look older, tired, or ‘puffy’. The eye-lid bags can be composed of both skin and fat, and this varies between people. Older people usually have extra skin with variable amounts of fat, while younger people tend to have prominent fat.
The operation will depend on the area being treated but will involve re-shaping of the cartilage and bones of the nasal bridge (dorsum) and /or the cartilages of the tip. When most of the work is being done to the bridge for removal of the hump, the surgery is usually performed from inside the nostrils (known as closed rhinoplasty). When the tip cartilages are being changed, then an open rhinoplasty is performed involving a cut made on the columella (skin between the nostrils).
Otoplasty can be carried out to reshape ears and place protruding ears closer to the head. Prominent or ‘Bat-ears’ can be a cause of embarrassment and stress for both adults and children. This reshaping will make the ear look smaller although it is also possible to reduce the size of the ear. Surgery remains the most common form of treatment, but should only be considered after the ear has stopped growing at the age of 7 years onwards.